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Wednesday, 24 April 2013

Worm and De-worming Solutions of Parakeets,Finch,Budgerigar,Budgies and All Type OF Cage Birds


Worm and De-worming Solutions of Parakeets,Finch,Budgerigar,Budgies and All Type OF Cage Birds
Can Parakeets Get Worms?


Parakeets, just like all animals, can get internal parasitic worms. Two groups of worms that affect birds are flatworms and roundworms. Within just these two groups, approximately 23 types of worms can affect your parakeet. Some can be quite common in parakeets, while others occur rarely.
How Do Parakeets Get Worms?

Your parakeet can become infected with worms during contact with infected birds, water, food or environment. Infected parakeets will spread worms during close contact with other birds and by contaminating the environment with infected feces. Feeding insects or allowing your parakeet to eat insects can expose your bird to worms. Additionally, infected insects can spread worms to your bird by contaminating the food and water.


Diagnosis & Treatment

Signs of worms in parakeets include weakness, weight loss, diarrhea, lethargy and stunted growth. Your veterinarian will diagnose or rule out intestinal worms by checking your parakeet's fecal material for worm eggs. Worms can shed eggs in the feces continually or periodically, depending on the worm. Therefore, your veterinarian may need to examine several fecal samples to provide a diagnosis for your parakeet. Deworming medication, prescribed by your veterinarian, will effectively eliminate parakeet worms.

Ascarids

Various roundworms can affect parakeets. The ascarids are transmitted by direct ingestion of worm eggs. The worms live in the digestive tract; heavy infections cause obstructions and can lead to death. Sometimes ascarid larvae leave the intestinal tract and migrate into or through other tissues, sometimes settling in tissues as larval cysts. A larval cyst forms when the cells surrounding the larvae form a capsule encasing the larvae. Keeping your parakeet's environment clean and dry can minimize parasitic outbreaks.

Hairworms

Another kind of roundworm common in parakeets is hairworms, also known as threadworms. The scientific name for hairworms is capillaria. These tiny threadlike worms often infect a parakeet's throat but can also infect the lower intestinal tract. Hairworms don't often cause the same massive destruction as ascarids, but they can cause diarrhea, weight loss, vomiting and anemia. Infected parakeets shed eggs in feces, which can contaminate other birds and the environment.
Tapeworms

Tapeworms, classified as flatworms, can infect parakeets. These parasites reside in your bird's lower intestinal tract and steal nutrients. Your parakeet may appear thin with ruffled feathers and may experience diarrhea or depression. Infected birds may expel whole worms or worm segments in their fecal material. Since most tapeworms do not expel eggs in the feces of infected birds, a veterinarian will diagnose tapeworms by visualization of expelled worms or worm segments.


SIGNS OF PARASITES

It is uncommon for birds to have parasites, but your bird could become ill if he becomes infested. There is a host of parasites of which you should be aware. By knowing what to look for, you can help to eradicate most of these pests before they have the opportunity to harm your pet.

External Parasites

Symptoms include restlessness, sores or crustations around the mouth and weakness. Feather picking is not a sign of external parasites, contrary to popular belief.

Telltale Signs:

Mallophaga: These include a number of species of biting and chewing lice. Clinical signs are mild or absent; however, heavy infestations do indicate other diseases are present. Attacks many birds, particularly cockatiels and canaries.

Scaly Face (Leg) Mange Mites: Rare on most birds, other than budgerigars. A white, porous, crustation can be seen around the mouth, cere, eyelids and beak, and the beak might become deformed. In passerines, long smooth crusts form on the plantar surfaces of the toes ("tassel foot").

Feather Mites (Red Mites): Signs of infestation include restlessness (particularly at night), intense itching or anemia. Heavy infestation may lead to death. These mites rarely affect caged birds, but are occasionally seen in canaries.

Gray-Cheeked Parakeet Mange Mites: Burrowing mites that may be found on imported Gray-Cheeked parakeets. A notable symptom is the loss of feathers on the head and neck.

Northern Fowl Mites: Outbreaks generally occur with the onset of warmer weather, and they are common in cockatiel flocks.

Fleas: Are not common on birds.

Ticks: Are found in poultry and wild birds, but not commonly on caged birds, unless they have been introduced by another pet.

Internal Parasites

Internal parasites can pose a health risk to you as well as to your pet, and they are often difficult, if not impossible, to detect except through blood tests and screenings performed by your veterinarian.

Telltale signs:

    Your bird might exhibit a sudden change in behavior.
    She might increase her vocalization.
    Her plumage may appear oily.
    There may be an increased volume of droppings, and they may appear pale or wet.
    There may be an increased appetite.
    Lesions may be present.

Air Sac Mites: May be found on Lady Gouldian finches, occasionally canaries, rarely on psittacines. There are no outward signs with a mild infestation. With heavy infestation, the bird may develop acute respiratory disease, with characteristic high-pitched clicking noises evident, sneezing, tail bobbing or open-mouth breathing. Tracheal mites may be detected in some cases.

Blood Protozoa, including Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Atoxoplasma: These may be found in imported cockatoos, birds of prey and some passerines. They are uncommon in domestically raised birds. Some symptoms include hepatamegaly, splenomegaly and depression. This is usually transmitted by mosquito or biting fly.

Coccidia: Most common in gallinaceous and columbiform birds; uncommon in domestically raised birds. Some have been reported in budgerigars and finches. Symptoms may include breathing difficulties, lethargy or gastroenteritis.

Cryptospordiosis: Seen in a variety of psittacines birds and Gouldian finches. It is uncommon in domestically raised birds.

Roundworms: This is most common in parrots, but rarely in other household birds. Symptoms are weakness and emaciation. In heavy infestations, intestinal obstruction may be present.

Threadworms: Hair-like worms, found in the small intestines. Infestations result in loss of appetite, weight loss and profuse, bloody diarrhea. These are uncommon in domestically raised birds.

Tapeworms (and stomach worms): Often seen in cockatoos and African Gray parrots; uncommon in domestically raised birds. The evidence of worms many occasionally be found in the droppings or around the bird's vent. Vectors of tapeworms are insects, arachnids, earthworms and slugs. Symptoms include diarrhea and the inability to thrive.

Giardia: Most commonly found in young budgerigars and cockatiels, and occasionally in aviary finches, but only rarely seen in parrots. In cockatiels, intense feather pulling along the thighs may occur. The bird may vocalize or "complain" and oily feathers may be present. Generally, pale, wet, voluminous droppings are evident. Symptoms are lethargy, gastroenteritis, unthriftyness and difficulty breathing. In budgerigars, watch for an increased appetite and anorexia, leading to emaciation and death.

Trichomononas: Occasionally seen in canaries, finches, budgerigars and in young Amazon parrots. They are uncommon in domestically raised birds. Symptoms may include white-yellow lesions adhering to the crop and esophagus; the bird may have weight loss and difficulty swallowing, as well as difficulty breathing.

Filarid Nematodes: Found in imported birds, they are also uncommon in domestically raised birds. These affect the feet, air sacs, body cavity and connective tissue. There are no outward clinical signs for most birds; however, in South American species, there may be some swelling of the feet.

Flukes: May be found on the surface of eyes, in proventriculus, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, kidney or blood vessels. Caged birds are rarely infected; these are more common in aviaries.

Remember, if you see or suspect any of these parasites, immediately see your avian veterinarian for diagnosis and treatment.

Deworming Of Birds
As you all know that breeding season of birds especially budgerigar , lovebirds & cockateil were off it is the time we deworm our birds ,can any body share their experiences which is the best & safe product for deworming. 

Zentel Syrup:-
Zentel is a de-wormer for human worms which are usually found in stomach and intestines. It is an excellent medicine and kills not only the worms but their eggs and larvae.

I am not sure if it would be that effective for birds too. Birds have mites too in their feathers and body which should also be killed and i doubt very much if Zentel would harm them.

Most of the fanciers use ivermectine or SCATT as de-wormer and mite kiiler the world over. Scatt is supposed to be much safer but it is probably not available in pakistan so a 0.1 % (zero point 1 per cent) solution of Ivermectine can be used . But with care that it doesnt touch your skin otheriwse you will have a steely taste in your mouth for days, Ivermectine is a very powerful drug used for humans and animals alike.
Deworming is strongly recommended before the start of breeding season. You better not deworm now as its already late now.
Kindly note that deworming is a must for the species which have the tendency of picking up food from the floor of the cage.
But ,as a routine, deworm all your birds twice a year.

Ivermectin
But be aware , this is an injection 1% solution , suitable for cattle but not for birds. for birds you have to dilute this to a .1 (point 1 %0 ) solution.

Take 1 cc /ml) of IVOTEK and mix it with one liter of water. this way You will get a .1% solution.

This is a very unstable solution so has to be fed right away. Becomes useless very quickly. Best way is to take away all drinking pots/cups from your birds in the evening.
The next day, prepare the solution and after they have had their fill, remove the medicated water. repeat the process after one week.

Nearly forgot to mention that wear gloves while handling this medicine. It is quite toxic to humans too and should not touch your skin. 

Ivermectin eliminates ecto and endo parasites...u should be very careful to this drug..use ineluctable 1% in 1 litter of water and eave water for 1 hours..replace it with fresh water..repeat the process after 3 weeks..
For intestinal worms oxyfendazole(oxafax) is better than albendazol(zentil)...use with precaution and do not de-worm birds when they r moulting and breeding...

Cage birds which like to pick food from the floor like( Red wing, Australian king, Princess, Barraband ) are more vulnerable to the internal parasites. I believe, we should always have wired floor in place of a smooth(trays) floor.

use oxyfendazole for internal worms and ivermectin for both internal and external parasites..a drop of scatt kills mites and all types of worms just like a sip of diluted ivermectin

"I am using Ivermectin 1% from last 2 years for internal and external parasites.
This is what I do in my bird room. at night just remove all the drinking or bathing water from every cage or aviary The next morning the birds will be nice and thirsty. Vigorously shake the Ivermectin bottle.
Then to liter of drinking water add 1 ml of Ivermectin solution Again shake the the mixture vigorously and place before the thirsty. The birds will drink the solution with gusto. Usual one good drink will cure the problems.. Leave the treat water before the birds until they finish all of it, or until the next day. Treat all the birds in your bird room at once. Repeat the treatment in 14 days."

"I started using ivermectin after confirming that the medicine had worked on his birds without any side-effects. Am pleased to share that i have been using ivermectin via drinking water on my ebs for roughly an year now and it has always worked great against mites. For details regarding local alternatives in Karachi, search the thread ivermectin availability"

""Does that mean Ivermectin is to be repeated once after 14 days and not before?

A gap of 2 to 3 weeks is recommended after the first administration to ensure maximum coverage of the medicine against mites. At my side the medicine usually works at the first try, i am able to confirm this by physically inspecting the inner flights of each bird. In case any bird still does not get rid of the mites then it is given the medicine again after the above mentioned gap.
In short, usually i have to use it once on the concerned bird.


2nd dose with the gap of 14 days (can be given few days up and down from 14 days) is necessary. Because ivermectin dose not kills the eggs of parasites, so we have to break the life cycle of parasites by giving it after 14 days when all the eggs of parasites hatched and the larva's are not fully mature to lay eggs.  ""


""Ideally we would like to administer it only once a year but it is practically not possible due to the following reasons:

- Movement of birds in terms of acquisitions/disposals or from hospital cage to breeding cage during sickness
- 100% coverage of medicine not possible as birds r often on eggs or raising chicks
- Multiple hiding places for mites like corner of cage, crevices in nest boxes, calcium blocks etc

Last month i was carrying out cleanup of my cage and noticed that all calcium blocks had tiny tunnels with mites roaming in them. Even though i use coopex in all sides of the cage and the nest boxes however i had not thought that they would make the calcium blocks as their hiding point.
By all accounts, it is realistically not possible to ensure 100% coverage. Even foreign birdkeepers are forced to do mite treatment from time to time.""



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